General News

Grazing Trial Infrastructure established on Billa Kalina Spring

Location of Billa Kalina Spring

The Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources Desert Jewels project, as referred to in the previous item, has also resulted in the establishment of fencing around a mound spring on Billa Kalina Station for the purpose of a grazing trial. DEWNR provided the fencing materials and Billa Kalina lessee Colin Greenfield has now completed the fencing work. In effect this will enable three grazing scenarios to be assessed:

  • Cattle will be permanently excluded from the spring vent and its immediate environs;
  • Another larger area including part of the spring tail is fenced but cattle will be allowed to graze this area from time to time;
  • Another section of the spring tail is outside of the fencing and thus will be permanently available for gazing by

During 2016, FOMS members Bren and Elizabeth Lay and Bernice Cohen collected vegetation data at the site and established photopoints prior to the fencing. In May 2017, FOMS members Bruce Gotch, Colin Harris and Simon Lewis inspected the completed fencing work and took the photographs included below.

It is expected that the actual grazing regimes to be applied within the trial area will be the subject of discussion between DEWNR and the pastoral lessee. FOMS may have some involvement in this and may assist with vegetation monitoring.

Section of spring tail to be periodically grazed
Protected spring pool
Indicative fence lay-out at Billa Kalina Spring: vent (small red enclosure) permanently protected; part of spring tail to be periodically grazed; part of tail outside of fence and open to grazing

FOMS Newsletter #19, September 2017

FOMS Newsletter Spring 2017 coverThis newsletter edition features:

  • FOMS’ efforts to repair walking trails at the Peake
  • An introductory trip for members making their first trip under the FOMS banner
  • Some high-tech advances by FOMS using a drone
  • The current situation re proposed fencing at Levi Springs
  • A spring grazing trial at Billa Kalina
  • Complications with the spring burning trial at Finniss Springs
  • Efforts by DEWNR to curtail cattle intrusion into Wabma Kadarbu Mound Springs Conservation Park
  • FOMS meeting with the Marla Oodnadatta NRM Group
  • The new Arid Lands NRM Plan

Fencing of Levi Springs still under Discussion

Levi Springs – approx. location

The State Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources has recently completed a three year project, known as Desert Jewels, looking at the management of mound springs and the FOMS has had some involvement. As part of that project, fencing of several springs at Levi was proposed. An initial proposal to fence all of the springs at Levi was not supported by the Arabana Aboriginal Corporation and a revised and reduced fence alignment was marked out on the ground during a visit in 2016 by FOMS and Arabana Elder Uncle Dean Stuart. The Arabana Aboriginal Corporation subsequently endorsed the revised alignment which is shown in red on the image below. The area proposed for fencing is around 10 – 12 ha.

Former lessees S Kidman and Co were fully supportive of the proposal but the on-ground works were not undertaken before the sale of the property to the Williams Cattle Company. In an effort to progress this matter, FOMS members Colin Harris, Bren Lay, Bruce Gotch and Simon Lewis met with Tony and Trevor Williams during the FOMS trip of August 2017.

During this on-site discussion it was clear that the springs were being heavily impacted by cattle. Tony and Trevor agreed that the current situation was in nobody’s best interests. They stressed that any decision about fencing would need to be made by their company and noted that a watering point would still be needed in the vicinity. In this respect, the group inspected the bore nearby, currently used by cattle, but in need of an upgrade. There was also some suggestion that the fencing could be extended to include the main spring in the bottom left of the image below, by following the alignment marked in blue on the image.

The meeting was positive and FOMS is confident of a good outcome. FOMS has sent further information to the Williams Cattle Company and we await their decision.

Proposed fencing of Levi Springs

Horses Complicate Burning Trials

Trial burn, Bopeechee Spring, May 2016

In our last newsletter we reported on a burning trial conducted on three springs on the Finniss Springs property, Bopeechee, Beatrice and a spring described as HBO 004, in May 2016. This trial was undertaken as part of DEWNR’s Desert Jewels project as an initial effort to assess the potential ongoing role of fire in the management of reeds, particularly Phragmites, in mound springs. Prolific growth of Phragmites has occurred at many springs that have been protected from cattle grazing to the apparent detriment of other wetland species. DEWNR and FOMS have been considering options for the active management of this prolific reed growth, with fire and periodic grazing (see also the Billa Kalina article) being two options for consideration.

In July 2016 a FOMS group visited Finniss Springs and noted quite strong regrowth of Phragmites just 7 or 8 weeks after the trial burn. At the time, FOMS carried out some vegetation monitoring, measuring density and height of regrowth.

However, in June 2017 a further FOMS inspection showed that the regrowth of Phragmites is being severely grazed by horses. The photos included here of Spring HBO 004 illustrate the situation. This has significantly complicated the monitoring program. While the horses remain in the area we are not simply monitoring the response of Phragmites to a trial burn but monitoring a combination of regrowth from fire and grazing impacts. Some discussion will be needed about the value of continuing the current vegetation monitoring or the need to adopt a different approach.

Same spring in June 2017. Phragmites now gone from spring vent as a result of grazing by horses
Spring HBO004 in June 2016, about 7 weeks after trial burn. Significant regrowth of Phragmites
Burning Trial Site

Trial Spring Burns conducted on Finniss Springs

Over the past three years the Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources (DEWNR), in collaboration with FOMS and others, has been conducting the Desert Jewels project aimed at improved management of mound springs to achieve conservation objectives. A primary area of interest has been the management of reeds (Phragmites), which have tended to proliferate in springs fenced to exclude stock. While Phragmites is a natural component in the landscape in mound spring country, it is thought that many decades of cattle intrusion into the mound springs has elevated nutrient levels and, when stock are excluded from the springs, the elevated nutrients have favoured prolific regrowth of Phragmites at the expense of other vegetation. It has been postulated that burning of the Phragmites, possibly in line with traditional Aboriginal burning practices, might be a useful management tool to help restore a more diverse vegetation cover at these springs. The burning process may help to hasten a decline in nutrient levels in these springs.

Phragmites burning strongly at Bopeechee Spring. To provide some scale, Dean Stuart can just be discerned on the right-hand side (photo: Bruce Gotch)
Phragmites burning strongly at Bopeechee Spring. To provide some scale, Dean Stuart can just be discerned on the right-hand side (photo: Bruce Gotch)

With this in mind, DEWNR collaborated with the local Arabana people and with FOMS personnel in June 2016 to burn two Phragmites springs on Finniss Springs (Bopeechee Spring and a spring described as HBO004). A trial burn was also conducted at nearby Beatrice spring – a spring with bulrush (Typha) cover rather than Phragmites. Also participating was Dr Jasmin Packer, Postdoctoral Fellow, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide. Dr Packer is working on a project on Phragmites management at a national and international scale and is keen to integrate the information from the mound spring burning trials into her own project.

Despite the regular and sometimes heavy rainfall in the Far North during 2016, the burning of Phragmites at Bopeechee and HBO004 springs was very successful burning virtually all above-ground or above-water vegetation and leaving a thick mat of ash.

The burning of the Typha spring (Beatrice) was less successful. The Typha was quite green and only a partial burn was possible. In the last week of July 2016 FOMS members Colin Harris, Bruce Gotch, Claire Bockner and Simon Lewis, along with Arabana elder Dean Stuart, paid another visit to Beatrice, Bopeechee and HBO004 springs. The group was interested to note quite prolific regrowth of Phragmites at Bopeechee and HBO004 just six weeks after the burns – with up to 70 Phragmites stems per square metre up to 0.65m high. The group repeated a number of one metre square quadrats at these springs to measure the extent of regrowth.

It is intended that monitoring will continue at these springs for several years to assess the longer term response of the reeds and of other vegetation associated with the springs. This will link in with monitoring at other springs – such as Outside and the Fountain, on the Peake – where the Phragmites appears to be in a state of natural decline. Another aspect to be considered is whether repeated burning at a particular spring – rather than a single one-off burn – should be trialled as a management option.

FOMS Fixes Faulty Fencing

In the early 1980s, the State Environment agency commissioned studies to document the features and importance of mound springs in South Australia. Eleven springs were identified as being of particular significance and were fenced by the Department in the period 1984 to 1988. These springs were Blanche Cup, the Bubbler, Coward Spring (all now within Wabma Kadarbu Mound Springs Conservation Park), Strangways Spring (on Anna Creek), Tarlton, Outside, Twelve Mile, Fountain and Big Perry springs (all on the Peake Pastoral Lease), Nilpinna Spring on Nilpinna Pastoral Lease and Big Cadna-Owie Spring on Allandale Pastoral Lease. The Department monitored the condition of these fenced springs from 1984 to 2005. With the exception of occasional fence repairs by Peake station personnel at Twelve Mile and some work to strengthen weak points and install bayonet gates in the early 1990s, the fencing has not been actively maintained.  It has lasted well, but is now at a stage where attention is needed.

Maintenance and repair work on the fencing around those springs outside of Wabma Kadarbu Mound Springs Conservation Park was one of the main tasks for FOMS volunteers in their trip to the springs in late July 2016. The fenced spring at Strangways did not require attention as this is within the much larger area at Strangways fenced by S Kidman and Co in the mid-1990s. The fencing group in the July 2016 trip comprised Brenton Arnold and Brendan Lay, with support from Bruce Gotch, Bernice Cohen, Colin Harris, Simon Lewis, Elizabeth Lay, Claire Bockner and Arabana elder Dean Stuart. Brenton, still in recovery from a bout of the ‘flu, brought with him a trailer load of fencing materials from Port Augusta.

The most arduous fencing work was at Twelve Mile Spring, where there have been problems in the past with cattle breaching a weak section of fence and gaining access to the springs. There, a section of fence needed to be realigned to avoid the vulnerable section.

Significant fence work was also needed at the Fountain. Here the spring tail passes through the fence and the fence has become weakened as a result of cattle pugging and eroding the wetland area just outside the fence. Brenton and Bren reinforced this section with star-droppers and additional wiring. At nearby Outside Spring one section of fence needed re-straining.

After completing the fencing work on the Peake, the group moved on to Nilpinna Spring, on Nilpinna Station. It was expected that significant repair work might be needed here as the spring area had been burnt three to four years ago – in an attempt to control bamboo growing at the spring – and this burn had damaged part of the fence. However, the singed fence-posts were in reasonable condition, so the task was not quite as great as anticipated. Vegetation was cleared away from the damaged section, the fence was re-strained and a number of spacers replaced.

Dean Stuart and Bruce Gotch check the bayonet gate at Twelve Mile Spring

Bayonet gates at each of the above springs were also serviced, with Bruce Gotch taking charge of this work. The bayonet gates were installed in the early 1990s after a particular problem with cattle gaining access through the fence to the Fountain. The design of the bayonet gates is such that cattle cannot get through them from outside but can get through them from inside the fenced area: thus if cattle do gain access through the fence in some way, they do have an opportunity to exit the fenced area via the bayonet gate.

While the above work may secure the fenced springs for the next few years, FOMS is concerned that ongoing reliance on volunteers to maintain the fencing is not necessarily the best option. FOMS will be promoting discussions aimed at looking at other partnership approaches that may provide better security for these areas into the longer term.

Protective Fencing organised for Levi Springs

One of the springs at Levi to be protected in the proposed enclosure

As part of DEWNR’s Desert Jewels project, it is proposed that a number of springs at Levi Springs, on Peake Pastoral Lease, be fenced to provide protection from stock. In August 2015, a combined group from FOMS and DEWNR inspected Levi Springs and plotted a proposed fence alignment that would include all of the springs at Levi and most of the associated rock formations. In early 2016, DEWNR’s Sam Gitahi, then Project Officer for the Desert Jewels Project, re-visited Levi with representatives of the Arabana people to check the acceptability of the proposed fence alignment to the Arabana community.

Subsequently, the proposal was considered by the Directors’ Group of the Arabana Aboriginal Corporation, which decided not to support the proposed alignment. The Directors’ Group indicated that a modified fencing alignment, taking in the springs but not the main associated rock formations, might be acceptable.

Accordingly, in the July 2016 trip FOMS volunteers returned to Levi Springs to review the situation.  Arabana elder Dean Stuart accompanied the group. Along with Dean the FOMS group comprised Colin Harris, Elizabeth Lay, Bernice Cohen, Claire Bockner and Simon Lewis.

These ruins of a shepherd’s hut will also be included in the fenced area

An agreed alignment was readily identified, taking in several springs on the northern side of the main rock formations, as well as the ruins of the former shepherd’s hut nearby. Peake manager Jim Wheeler met the group at Levi Springs and foreshadowed no particular concerns from the Kidman perspective in relation to the fencing. Following the field inspection of July 2016, the Directors of the Arabana Aboriginal Corporation met in Marree on 20 August and endorsed the revised fence alignment. Pastoral lessees S. Kidman and Co have also given the go-ahead.

Materials for the originally proposed fence alignment have already been purchased by DEWNR and this Department and FOMS are now in discussion about arrangements for erection of the fence. This work will provide protection for an important area of springs and, as such, will be a significant milestone for the Desert Jewels project.

Grazing Trial to be conducted at Billa Kalina

As can be seen from the photo, the spring has a fairly uniform coverage of low sedges, in this case the bore-drain sedge Cyperus laevigatus. There are currently no reeds, Phragmites, at the site.

The Desert Jewels project conducted by the Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources (DEWNR) covers many aspects of mound springs management, some of which are described in other items in this newsletter. One particular area of interest is the effect of controlled or pulse grazing on mound springs. Following consultation between DEWNR and FOMS personnel and Colin Greenfield at Billa Kalina Station, a spring is to be fenced on Billa Kalina in a configuration that will allow controlled grazing in part of the fenced area and complete exclusion of stock in another section. Another part of the spring wetland will be permanently open to grazing so, in effect, there will be three management regimes to monitor at the spring.

During FOMS’ trip to the mound springs in July 2016. Brendan and Elizabeth Lay and Bernice Cohen visited Billa Kalina. They met with Colin Greenfield to discuss arrangements for the fencing, then drove on to the spring to be fenced to check the alignment for the fencing and to collect baseline vegetation data. The data will provide a useful comparison for future measurements when the fencing is in place.

Ongoing consultation with Colin Greenfield will be needed to keep records of grazing patterns around the spring and within the exclosure which will be stocked from time to time.

As can be seen from the photo, the spring has a fairly uniform coverage of low sedges, in this case the bore-drain sedge Cyperus laevigatus. There are currently no reeds, Phragmites, at the site.

Notes on Mound Spring Vegetation 2016

Bulrushes and sedges in good condition at Milne Springs

During the July 2016 FOMS trip a number of observations were made of the condition of wetland vegetation at many springs. This included photo-point monitoring at springs fenced by the State Environment agency during the 1980s – Outside, Twelve Mile, Fountain and Big Perry Springs on the Peake, Nilpinna Spring on Nilpinna Station and Big Cadna-Owie Spring on Allandale Station. The State Environment Department conducted annual photo-point monitoring at these and several other springs from the mid-1980s until 2005.

But first there are some general observations that can be made. 2016 has been a stand-out year with regular and plentiful rain in the Far North of the State. One of the results of this type of year is that surface waters become widespread and stock fan out to a greater degree across the landscape. So, whereas in dry times stock will often have heavy impact on unprotected mound springs, in good wet seasons the springs are less impacted and the spring vegetation has an opportunity to recover. As an example, the photo below – taken in July 2016 – shows Milne Springs, on the Peake, with a good cover of predominantly Typha (bulrush) and Cyperus laevigatus (bore-drain sedge). Milne Springs are open to grazing by stock.

The photo-point monitoring repeated on the July 2016 trip for the first time since 2005 highlighted two main points.

Firstly, it highlighted that reeds (Phragmites) have been steadily increasing in distribution and abundance at several springs following the fencing of about 30 years ago. The following two photos, taken from a similar location at the Fountain Spring, highlight this point. In 2001, Phragmites was largely restricted to the spring vent (in background of photo). By 2016 Phragmites had taken over the lower section of the spring tail (foreground of photo).

Semi-open water at Outside Spring, July 2016

The second observation is that there are signs that Phragmites may have “peaked” at a couple of protected springs. This is most evident at Outside Spring where the area of the main vent now has semi-open water, as shown in the photo below.

This observation sits quite well with the hypothesis that the proliferation of Phragmites in springs following fencing and stock exclusion is boosted by elevated nutrient levels at these springs following decades of stock access. With prolonged stock exclusion, nutrient levels may decline slowly and this may affect the vigour and distribution of Phragmites. A lesser decline of this nature has been observed at the Fountain and it may be that the intrusion of cattle into the Fountain in the early 1990s means that the Fountain is trailing Outside Springs in terms of nutrient reduction.

Research being undertaken by the University of Adelaide includes nutrient analyses in the springs and this may help to clarify whether the above hypothesis is valid.